Participants will carry out two practicals among the more than 20 laboratory courses on the application sciences, etc. in the SPring-8 facilities.
in-situ XAFS measurement of catalyst samples
Tomoya Uruga and Hajime Tanida (JASRI/SPring-8)
The bending magnet beamline, BL01B1, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 113 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS spectra, which covers alignment of X-ray optics and sample position. We will also demonstrate in-situ time-resolved quick scanning XAFS measurement of catalyst samples under reaction condition.
Single crystal diffractometory using high-energy X-ray
Kunihisa Sugimoto (JASRI/SPring-8)
The beamline for single crystal, BL02B1, is designed for the precise crystal structure analysis to elucidate the structure properties relationship with electron orbital resolution. There are large cylindrical image plate camera and 7-axes diffractmeter to adapt various experimental conditions in the hatch. For the statistically reliable and high resolution data, high-energy X-ray and very small size crystal are used in order to reduce the absorption and extinction effect. In this beamline practical course, we will plan the experiment using large cylindrical image plate camera how to collect the high reliable data of single crystal.
3. BL02B2: Canceled
In situ observation of high-pressure phase change of olivine
Ken-ichi Funakoshi and Yuji Higo (JASRI/SPring-8)
The BL04B1 beamline is designed for conducting researches on the structures and physical properties under high-pressure. In the practice, we observe olivine - wadsleyite transformation in Mg2SiO4 using a large-volume multianvil device and an energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. Olivine is considered to be the most abundant mineral in the earth’s upper mantle (depths between 30km and 410km), and the 410 km seismic discontinuity is attributed to the olivine - wadsleyite transformation. Precise phase boundary and change of the lattice constants of olivine are determined from in situ X-ray diffraction analysis.
Disordered Structure Probed by High-energy X-ray Diffraction Technique
Shinji Kohara (JASRI/SPring-8)
High-brilliance and high-energy X-rays are one of the biggest advantages of SPring-8. The use of high-energy X-rays allows us to measure diffraction patterns up to high-reciprocal space in a transmission geometry with small scattering angles and small correction terms, which provides more detailed and reliable structural information of disordered materials (glass, liquid, and amorphous materials) than has hitherto been available. In this course, we will focus on the structural analysis of disordered materials by the diffraction measurement. We will learn how we can obtain a reliable diffraction data for disordered materials and how we can analyze the data. Furthermore we will try to perform structural modelling of disordered materials on the basis of diffraction data employing computer simulation technique.
Beam Diagnostics of the SPring-8 Storage Ring using Undulator Radiation
Mitsuhiro Masaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
The spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the undulator radiation reflect the transversal and longitudinal properties of electron beam stored in the storage ring. In this laboratory course, we will provide an opportunity to measure the energy spectrum and the spatial profile of the undulator radiation and to see the effects of the emittance and the energy spread of the electron beam. Furthermore, this course will include observations of the temporal structure of the electron beam using an X-ray streak camera.
Spin moment determination of ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials using magnetic Compton scattering
Yoshiharu Sakurai (JASRI/SPring-8)
This course provides an opportunity for able beginners to learn the practical details of magnetic Compton scattering. Magnetic Compton scattering is one of the synchrotron-radiation-based techniques to measure the spin moment of ferro- or ferromagnetic materials. The training begins with a brief introduction to magnetic Compton scattering and its techniques, followed by on-the-job trainings for spectrometer calibration, sample setting and data acquisition, with a ferromagnetic Fe reference-sample and a ferromagnetic compound. If you carry a well-characterized bulk-sample, we will consider its preliminary measurement on your request in advance.
8. BL10XU: Canceled
Training for Surface X-ray Diffraction Measurements
Hiroo Tajiri and Osami Sakata (JASRI/SPring-8)
The aim of this training course is to give introduction for structural characterization of crystalline surface using x-ray diffraction. Beamline BL13XU is dedicated for surface/interface structural studies using diffraction and scattering techniques such as crystal-truncation-rod scattering, reflectivity, and standing waves. Intensities diffracted from a sample are extremely weak compared with that obtained from a thin film, of course a bulk crystal. Thus surface x-ray diffraction measurements need not only a powerful x-ray source like the SPring-8 standard undulator, but also proper control of a BL monochromator and mirror to make an incident-beam intensity maximum and stable. A plan for training at Cheiron School is to learn how to orient a sample and successively make surface x-ray measurements. We would like to quickly show how to align the beamline optics to tune incident x-rays desired as well.
Making Experimental Control Software
Furukawa Yukito (JASRI/SPring-8)
The aim of the course is to understand experimental station and beamline control system and to aquire skill for writing simple experiment control programs using some scripting language. The programs contain scanning a monochromator, counting photons and displaying the results. To examine the program, students will measure X-ray absorption spectra of some metal foils.
Instrumentation for Time-resolved Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
Oura Masaki (RIKEN/SPring-8)
Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy is a technique which is applicable to investigation of electronic structure of various systems such as solid, surface adsorbate, gas, liquid and solution. Recently, a time resolving two dimensional position encoder has been applied to the detection system of the soft x-ray emission spectrometer installed at BL17SU. This enables us to perform time-resolved measurement for soft x-ray emission spectrometry. In the course, the participants will learn a principle of the position encoder as well as the soft x-ray emission spectrometer, and gain experience in time-resolved measurements. The course will also include alignment of the apparatus, sample transfer under UHV condition and data acquisition with various NIM and CAMAC modules.
Pump and Probe Technique for Picosecond Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction
Yoshihito Tanaka and Yoshiki Kohmura (RIKEN/SPring-8)
The pulsed nature of the synchrotron radiation and the synchronization technique between SR pulse and ultrashort laser pulse enable us to make pump and probe measurements with 40 ps time resolution. The time resolved x-ray diffraction experiments will be demonstrated for the lattice dynamics of a single semiconductor crystal. The course may help you with starting the picosecond time-resolved experiments at your stations for investigation on fast structural dynamics.
Imaging microscopy with Fresnel zone plate objective
Yoshio Suzuki and Akihisa Takeuchi (JASRI/SPring-8)
The Fresnel zone plate is not only a beam-focusing tool but also a image-forming devise. Most of x-ray and soft x-ray imaging microscopes are, so far, made using the Fresnel zone plate as an objective lens. That is because astigmatism, spherical aberration, coma, and field distortion of Fresnel zone plate optics are negligibly small for nm-resolution imaging. We will present a lecture on zone plate optics as an image-forming system and typical demonstration for hard x-ray imaging microscopy.
Soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Measurement and the Related Techniques
Tetsuya Nakamura and Takuo Ohkochi (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL25SU provides circularly polarized soft x-ray of photon-energy between 220 eV and 2000 eV. Periodical helicity switching (0.1 - 10Hz) using the twin helical undulators and high energy resolution of E/DE > 10,000 are the leading features of the beamline. The helicity switching technique gives great advantage to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurement. Participants of the experiments at BL25SU during the Cheiron school will take part in soft x-ray MCD measurements. A conventional XMCD measurement is planned in the first practice day, which is good for XMCD beginners. In the second day, a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) will be used to learn how to obtain element specific magnetic domain structures. The second day practice could be better for the participants who know what XMCD is. Following an introduction of the optical components and measurement apparatuses installed at the beamline, they will learn how we measure precise MCD spectra or PEEM images. We believe that the planned course will provide a fruitful opportunity for participants interested in soft x-ray techniques and the study of magnetic materials.
Soft X-ray Photoemission and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy
Yusuke Tamenori and Takayuki Muro (JASRI/SPring-8)
Photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopy using high-resolution soft x-rays will be experienced in this course. A hemispherical photoelectron analyzer is used for photoemission spectroscopy, and photoabsorption spectra will be measured by means of the total fluorescence yield method with an MCP detector. The participants will gain experience in sample transfer, sample manipulation inside a UHV chamber, and data acquisition.
Hard X-ray nanofocusing using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system
Satoshi Matsuyama (Osaka Univ.) and Hirokatsu Yumoto (JASRI)
A Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system, which consists of two elliptical mirrors aligned at right angles to each other, is a powerful focusing device because of high efficiency and achromatic focusing. However, the system has a disadvantage of having difficulties in mirror alignments. In the course, we will learn how to focus hard X-rays with a KB system. If time permits, a demonstration of scanning X-ray microscopy with the obtained nanobeam will be performed.
Phonons by High Resolution Inelastic X-Ray Scattering: Magneto-Elastic Coupling in an Antiferromagnet
Alfred Q.R. Baron with H. Uchiyama and S. Tsutsui (JASRI/SPring-8 & RIKEN)
Phonons and phonon dispersion are unusual subjects to investigate at a synchrotron radiation source as there are only a few instruments in the world capable of such studies. However, the field is rapidly expanding as there is an increasing interest in such studies both intrinsically to investigate atomic dynamics, and considering phonons as one component of complex correlated system. This course will introduce the students to phonons and phonon measurements using meV-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering. We will investigate the coupling between the magnetic structure and lattice excitations in an antiferromagnet.
X-ray Fluorescence Analysis using Microfocusing Optics
Yasuko Terada (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL37XU is designed for application to various X-ray fluorescence analyses. The beamline has two branches; one is SPring-8 standard undulator-beamline optics branch (Branch-A) and the other is high-energy branch (Branch-B). Major experimental techniques are -X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, TXRF, XRF holography and high-energy XRF analysis. The practice at BL37XU is how to measure micro-XRF of typical specimens, which covers alignment of X-ray focusing optics and adjustment of solid-state detector.
Data Collection and S-SAD Phasing of Lysozyme Crystals
Seiki Baba (JASRI/SPring-8)
Phase problem is a major difficulty in protein crystallography. As a recent advancement, S-SAD phasing method has been proposed. It solves the problem by the anomalous effect of sulfur atoms involved in most protein samples. In this exercise, we plan to the data collection of insulin crystal and the determination of its structure. The alignment of the beamline and a sample mounting robot will also be introduced.
Handling of X-ray polarization and application to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy
N. Kawamura, M. Mizumaki and M. Suzuki (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is a useful tool to investigate magnetic properties because of an element specificity, electronic shell selectivity and angular-momentum sensitivity. In particular, unnecessary ultrahigh-vacuum in hard X-ray region is effective to measure the XMCD under multiple extreme conditions such as high-magnetic field, extreme low temperature, and high pressure. To measure XMCD spectra with high accuracy, it is necessary to optimize the tuning of the relation among the undulator, monochromator, and X-ray phase retarder (XPR) precisely; that is, the undulator gap and the XPR condition must be adjusted according to the X-ray energy. In addition, a helicity-modulation technique, which provides a dichroic signal of less than 0.01% and with a good signal-to-noise ratio, requires a combination of fast switching of the helicity and a phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection system. Therefore, extremely high-quality XMCD spectra are obtained in a short acquisition time. In this study, you can understand polarization control using XPR and the basis of the helicity-modulation method.
Small-angle Scattering Experiments
Naoto Yagi (JASRI/SPring-8)
Small-angle scattering/diffraction experiments require sophisticated optics (monochromator, focusing mirror, slits) and a detector system. Examples at small-angle beamlines (BL40B2 and BL40XU) will be explained.?As a typical application, a protein solution scattering experiment will be conducted at BL40B2 with some instructions on the data analysis.?Instrumentation for time-resolved experiments is also explained.
Microspectroscopy using infrared synchrotron radiation
Taro Moriwaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL43IR provides infrared radiation of high brilliance from a large bending radius (39.3 m) bending magnet. The beamline is therefore suitable for the microspectroscopy applications at the diffraction limit scale of approximately 10-100 micrometer depending on the wavelength. We plan to provide an opportunity to use the infrared microscope at the beamline of the practical training on adjustment of the optics, sample preparation (human hair cross-sectioning), adjustment of the microscope and measurements (two-dimensional mapping of the hair sample).